Principal Storage Technologies
The general principles for storing heat are sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, sorptive heat storage and chemical heat storage. Sorptive and chemical heat storage technologies are called thermochemical energy storage.
- Sensible heat storage depends on the heat capacity of the material. Examples for sensible heat stores are storage tanks, borehole thermal energy stores or aquifers. The enthalpy-temperature curve is linear.
- Latent thermal heat stores use the phenomenon that there is a temperature range at which the material changes its phase. This is coupled to a large increase (or vice versa decrease) in enthalpy (e.g.melting, evaporation, crystallisation). The materials used for latent thermal heat stores are water, organic and inorganic phase change materials.
- Thermochemical heat storage uses the principle of physical adhesion and absorption enthalpy or chemical reaction enthalpy.
Enthalpy – temperature diagram for sensible, latent and thermochemical heat storage